It is said that management of human resources lead, mobilize and direct the efforts of people. In the stage of globalization and industrialization human resource management reveal the following trends according to Dale Yoder:
1. Increased complexity of organization and employment communication and a distinction between owners, managers and workers
2. Decreased number of employers and self-employed, and enlarged size or workforce
3. Enhanced need for training in view of increased requirements of specialized skills
4. Public interventions and legal complication in employer-employee relationships
5. Enhanced training and development of managers and professionalisation of management education
6. Possibility of employment explosion in view of the ever-increasing size of workforce
7. Rising formal level of education of rank-and-file employees who are becoming increasingly critical of management malpractices and errors
8. Rank-and-file employees’ rapidly growing demands in different employment situations
9. Increased applications of behavioural science by enterprising managers
10. Recognition of close relationship between profits and earnings and ability to manage human resources
These are the identified problem which occurs in an organization with the employee and owners. The need creates the role of human resource management.
Objectives of Human Resource Management by the MB 0027 Book:
Importance of Human Resources
Economic and Non-Economic factors and their interaction with HR
Evaluation of HR and HR management in the Indian context
Theory of Human Relations
Objective of HR
Growth of HR as a profession
Personnel Management and HR Management
At first we will discuss on the importance of Human Resources however it has been discussed some more above. From the MBA book MB 0027 we can defined that Human Resources is known as the “total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the population whereas from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees” Main importance of human resource management are increasing significance in modern organizations.
In the chapter economic and non-economic factors we can say at 1st human resource known as the importance from the economic standpoint at national, enterprise and individual levels of analysis.
Evolution of Management of Human Resources in Indian Context:
In the “Artha-Shastra” which is written by Kautliya, an Indian 1st economist in 4th century B.C provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources. In the book he described labour in a society as the system of “Shreni”. According to the “Shreni” Indian society was divided in four parts from the labourer point of view. Kautilya has provided an excellent thought on staffing and personnel management also which define the ability of a man to work in society. According to the personnel skills everyone will get the job in society. Further, Indian society divided on the cast system to distribute labour system.
In the modern age of India there was a factory act in 1881. According to the act workers were allowed a week off-day and for woman workers hours of a day have been limited as eleven hours per day. Further the act lead to the child workers also and give them royalties to work seven hours in a day and a child should be in minimum age of 7 years and only day shift they can work.
To lead the voice of workers first labour organization designated in Bombay in 1890 as Mill Hands association. In 1905 the Printers’ Union at Calcutta comes in light and similarly in 1907 the Postal Union at Bombay was established.
In this process after the post independent of India the fight between employee and owners were continuous. All the aspect to organize resources and human being for an organization give birth the management of human resources in India also.
Theory of Human Relations
The theory of human relations has been defined in two factors – employee human relationship within an orgnastion and public human relations outside an organization. About the theory Huneryager and Heckmann said, “Human relations is a systematic, developing body of knowledge devoted to explanning the behaviour of individuals I the working organsion”. According to McFarland, “Human Relations is the study and practice of utilizing human resources through knowledge and through an understanding of the activities, attitudes, sentiments and inter-relationship of people at work.”
According to the MBA Book of SMU – MB 0027 Human Relations in Management “is a process that brings workers into contact with and causes them to be influenced by their leaders, their jobs and other aspects of the organizations which they work.”
Human Relations Objectives:
Mainly human relations work within the employee and for the employee in the favour of an organization and owners. It is not a technical and economic aspects but it is the aspect which deals the motives of an organization.
Specially, in India human relation movement took place in 1970s when Indian workers and agrarian announced to fight against the capitalist classes. It was the turning point for the human relation department in India.
In the end of the chapter we can take look of Yader, Henemen and others who differentiate the Personal Management and Human Resource Management by the definition, “HRM is a broad concept which covers many personnel aspects and include social, professional and individual enterprise aspects, whereas Personnel Management focuses only on personnel aspects such as leadership, justice determination, task specialization, staffing, performance appraisal, etc. HRM is more growth-oriented whereas Personnel Management is slightly narrow.”