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Education Resources

Human Resource Management : HR Management

Saturday, December 13, 2008

After having completed the book review of MB 0022 of 1st semester I am going to write about the human resource management in an organization. Globally, Human Resource Management today known as a part of an organization and it has own existence world wide.

It is said that management of human resources lead, mobilize and direct the efforts of people. In the stage of globalization and industrialization human resource management reveal the following trends according to Dale Yoder:

1. Increased complexity of organization and employment communication and a distinction between owners, managers and workers

2. Decreased number of employers and self-employed, and enlarged size or workforce

3. Enhanced need for training in view of increased requirements of specialized skills

4. Public interventions and legal complication in employer-employee relationships

5. Enhanced training and development of managers and professionalisation of management education

6. Possibility of employment explosion in view of the ever-increasing size of workforce

7. Rising formal level of education of rank-and-file employees who are becoming increasingly critical of management malpractices and errors

8. Rank-and-file employees’ rapidly growing demands in different employment situations

9. Increased applications of behavioural science by enterprising managers

10. Recognition of close relationship between profits and earnings and ability to manage human resources

These are the identified problem which occurs in an organization with the employee and owners. The need creates the role of human resource management.

Objectives of Human Resource Management by the MB 0027 Book:

Importance of Human Resources

Economic and Non-Economic factors and their interaction with HR

Evaluation of HR and HR management in the Indian context

Theory of Human Relations

Objective of HR

Growth of HR as a profession

Personnel Management and HR Management

At first we will discuss on the importance of Human Resources however it has been discussed some more above. From the MBA book MB 0027 we can defined that Human Resources is known as the “total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the population whereas from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees” Main importance of human resource management are increasing significance in modern organizations.

In the chapter economic and non-economic factors we can say at 1st human resource known as the importance from the economic standpoint at national, enterprise and individual levels of analysis.

Evolution of Management of Human Resources in Indian Context:

In the “Artha-Shastra” which is written by Kautliya, an Indian 1st economist in 4th century B.C provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources. In the book he described labour in a society as the system of “Shreni”. According to the “Shreni” Indian society was divided in four parts from the labourer point of view. Kautilya has provided an excellent thought on staffing and personnel management also which define the ability of a man to work in society. According to the personnel skills everyone will get the job in society. Further, Indian society divided on the cast system to distribute labour system.

In the modern age of India there was a factory act in 1881. According to the act workers were allowed a week off-day and for woman workers hours of a day have been limited as eleven hours per day. Further the act lead to the child workers also and give them royalties to work seven hours in a day and a child should be in minimum age of 7 years and only day shift they can work.

To lead the voice of workers first labour organization designated in Bombay in 1890 as Mill Hands association. In 1905 the Printers’ Union at Calcutta comes in light and similarly in 1907 the Postal Union at Bombay was established.

In this process after the post independent of India the fight between employee and owners were continuous. All the aspect to organize resources and human being for an organization give birth the management of human resources in India also.

Theory of Human Relations

The theory of human relations has been defined in two factors – employee human relationship within an orgnastion and public human relations outside an organization. About the theory Huneryager and Heckmann said, “Human relations is a systematic, developing body of knowledge devoted to explanning the behaviour of individuals I the working organsion”. According to McFarland, “Human Relations is the study and practice of utilizing human resources through knowledge and through an understanding of the activities, attitudes, sentiments and inter-relationship of people at work.”

According to the MBA Book of SMU – MB 0027 Human Relations in Management “is a process that brings workers into contact with and causes them to be influenced by their leaders, their jobs and other aspects of the organizations which they work.”

Human Relations Objectives:

Mainly human relations work within the employee and for the employee in the favour of an organization and owners. It is not a technical and economic aspects but it is the aspect which deals the motives of an organization.

Specially, in India human relation movement took place in 1970s when Indian workers and agrarian announced to fight against the capitalist classes. It was the turning point for the human relation department in India.

In the end of the chapter we can take look of Yader, Henemen and others who differentiate the Personal Management and Human Resource Management by the definition, “HRM is a broad concept which covers many personnel aspects and include social, professional and individual enterprise aspects, whereas Personnel Management focuses only on personnel aspects such as leadership, justice determination, task specialization, staffing, performance appraisal, etc. HRM is more growth-oriented whereas Personnel Management is slightly narrow.”

Organisational Change and Development – MBA Book

Monday, December 1, 2008

MBA is all about related to a firm or company so we have to discuss all things in the relation of on organization.

An intellectual has said that everything is changeable. So, it is also fact in the situation of organization. Development of organization is changing process.

We should decide some objectives of this chapter which can be:

Forces for change

Form of change

Approach to change

Concept and purpose of development

Types of Organisation Development Activity

Analysis of Organisational effectiveness

Change refers to a modification always. We know change without force is not possible. For example we can see whole history of life. So, we can indicate the forces of change in an organization:

Nature of the Work Force

Technology

Economic Shocks

Competition

Social Trends

World Politics

Change should be recognized as external and internal changes. External forces which is beyond us and include – Technological changes, globlisation, social and political changes, workforce diversity and managing ethical behaviour etc.

Like these internal forces includes - changes in Managerial personnel, declining effectiveness, changes in work climate, deficiencies in the Existing System, Crisis and Employee expectations.

Internal forces, which can be managed by us and which is not beyond us.

Now, we will discuss about forms of change. There are two types of changes – planned and unplanned.

Now, here is another thing which is definition of Organisation Development (OD)

For the topic we should take look on some theoretician definition. According to Wendell L. French and Cecil H. Bell, Jr., “Organisation development is a systematic process for applying behavioural science principles and practices in organizations, to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.”

Another theory comes from Worly, “a systematic application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processing for improving an organisation’s effectiveness.”

Now, we can say that organization development is organization improvement strategy. OD is known as a technique which brings change in the organisatioin.

Now, we can say change is inevitable in a progressive culture and society to meet the new.

Conflict Management – MBA Book

Saturday, November 8, 2008

Best examples of conflict are conflict between management and employees. Conflict a serious problem in any organization if the problem not handle properly.

Conflict Management Objectives from the MBA Book

Definition of Conflict

Outcome of Conflict

Forms of Conflict

Conflict Management Strategies

Stress

Causes of Stress

Stress Management

Crisis of Management

About the conflict in an organization there are many definitions by some academician. At 1st we will give some light on Gray and Starke’s theory of conflict management, “Conflict is behaviour by a person or group that is purposely designed to inhibit the attainment of goals by another person or group. This ‘purposeful inhibition may be active or passive.”

According to K. W. Thomas conflict is, “processes that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect, something the first party cares about.”

At last I give one more definition about conflict by B. Kabanoff, “Conflict refers to a disagreement, opposition, or struggle between two or more individuals or groups. It results from incompatible influence attempts between and within individuals, groups or organizations.”

In the age of globalization company has conflicts in terms of people personality, values, attitudes, perceptions, languages, cultures and national backgrounds.

Now, we will discuss about outcomes of conflicts. Outcome of conflicts is the results of conflicts. Conflicts has two consequences – Positive and Negative.

Positive consequences of conflicts are:

Leads to new ideas

Stimulates Creativity

Motivates changes

Promotes Organizational vitality

Helps Individual and Groups

Indicate Problems

Negative consequences of conflicts are:

Diverts energy from work

Wastes of resources

Creates negative climate

Breaks down group cohesion

Increase hostility and aggressive behaviours

Conflicts are divided into two parts – Functional Conflict and Dysfunctional conflict.

Functional conflicts support the goals of the group and improve its performance while dysfunctional conflict hinders the group performance.

In this chapter now we have to discuss about sources of organizational conflict. These are:

Line and Staff Competition

Organization-Individual Disagreements

Overlapping Responsibilities

Functional Interdependence

Personality Clashes

Disagreement over Goals

Flow of Work

Conflict can be divide into two forms also – Intra-Individual or Interpersonal conflict. An Individual can get experience about cognitive conflict, affective conflict, inter-role conflict, intra-role conflict and personal-role conflict.

Strategies of Conflict Management

In the strategies of conflict management we can include – avoiding, accommodating, competing, compromising and collaborating which is style of management.

Negotiation

In this chapter we have to study about negotiation also. Negotiation is a process by which we can define conflict what they are willing to give and accept in return. Negotiation has been including in this chapter because it is a part of conflict management. Negotiation process solves management conflicts towards the employees.

There can be some negotiation steps:

Preparation

Evaluation of Alternatives

Identifying Interests

Bargains

In every country there are different cultural differences in negotiation. Like Japanese give the high importance of emotional sensitivity while for North American it has no high value.

In the negotiation there are two major approaches – Distributive Bargaining and Integrative Negotiation.

In today world there are more value of third-party negotiators who known as – mediator, arbitrator, consultant, inquisitor and delegator or avoider.

Stress

Stress is exceeding complex. Here I will give some definition which has been proposed by theoreticians. According to J. C quick and J. D Quick, “Stress, or the stress response, is the unconscious preparation to fight or flee a person experiences when faced with any demand.”

Another definition from Mikhail is also very important, “Stress refers to a psychological and physiological state that result when certain features of an individual’s environment challenge that person, creating an actual or perceived imbalance between demand and capability to adjust that results in a non-specific response.”

I think stress creates from our environmental situation. Stress affects normally our health.

The causes of stress

After having study the definition of stress we need to know about causes of stress. In the causes of stress we can introduce conflict.

There is some cause of stress:

Inner conflicts

Perceptual influences

Thresholds of stress

Motivational level

Stress value can be measured by a rating scale. These are:

If a person feels about the spouse death its mean value is 100. Like that when a person gets notice of divorce then stress value mean of 73 scales.

In this chapter we will study about two type of behaviour pattern – A and B.

In pattern of “A” behaviour we see these:

Impatience

Aggressiveness

Hostility

Restlessness

Devotion to work

Feeling of Intense time Pressure

Attempts to several things at once

In the type of “B” behaviour pattern we can summarize it as:

Never suffer from a sense of time urgency

Feel no need to display any achievement

Play for fun

To manage stress we can follow some level which can be:

Individual Level

Organisation Level

Crisis Management

It is the last chapter of conflict management. Crisis management is an issue in business world. It is a big issue for now. We can categories crisis management.

Types of Crisis

Natural Disaster

Environmental disaster

Industrial accident

Shortfall in demand

At last, we can say conflict can be a serious problem for a company or organisatioin.

Power and Politics in Organisations – MBA Book

Sunday, November 2, 2008

Power and Politics both are associated with each other. In a firm or in a country power in is in dominating position if the politics is associated with that.

In the chapter of “Power and Politics in Organisation” from this MBA book we can decide some objectives which can be:

About Power

Source of Power

Types of Power

Ethical Use of Power

Analysis of Political behaviour in an organization

Power is a potential ability and influence for a people which direct others people in desired direction to do something.

Now, we discuss about source of power in organizations which is depends upon a manger. In an organization manager use multiple source of power to bring out the best employees for the organization.

Manager use normally two types of power – interpersonal and structural. Interpersonal power includes these elements:

Reward Power

Coercive Power

Legitimate Power

Referent Power

Expert Power

All these associated with maintain power and effectively uses of power. To maintain power for reward point we can find out the need and want of people but when we will want to use effectively “Reward Power” then we will offer desirable rewards.

Same with to maintain coercive power we will identify credible penalties to deter unacceptable behaviour while to use effectively coercive power we will inform target and rules and penalties.

In the Legitimate power to maintain we can will gain more formal authority while to use effectively it we will be polite and send a request.

To maintain “Referent Power” we will show acceptance and positive regards while to use effectively it we will use personal appeals when necessary.

To maintain expert power we will gain more relevant knowledge while to use effectively it we will explain the reasons for a request or proposal.

Using of Power Ethically

Ethical power is logical power in the favour of humanity which comes from manager characters.

There are some processes to use “Ethical Power” in a firm or organization which are:

Reward Power in ethical way should be use by manager as: Verify Compliance, make feasible, reasonable requests etc.

Like this all the sources comes from types of power but should be use them ethically by a manager in any firm.

Structure of Sources of Power

Source of power depends upon mainly three abilities which are: reduce uncertainty, lack of substitutes and centrality of activities.

Uncertainty contains - Resource control, information control, decision-making control, substitutability, centrality and managing the boss.

Now, we should come on political behaviour in Organisation

For the topic there is very good definition from D.Farrell and J.C Petersen, “those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.”

Politics always tightly linked with power. In our day to day life we can see politics and power also. So, no one people and place escape with politics and power.

So, there should be some political strategies and influence tactics which may affect the thoughts, behaviour or feelings of another person.

In the political tactics we can include these elements:

Pressure

Upward Appeals

Exchange

Coalition

Ingratiation

Rational Persuasion

Inspirational Appeals

Consultation

About the types of politics when we inter we know about Maccoby’s Political thought which is divided into four parts. These are:

The Craftsman

The Jungle Fighter

Company Man or Women

The Gamesman

Using of Power and Politics as a Manager

As a manager we should care something when we use politics and power. These can be:

Effective use of power

Power should be use in Ethical way

We should understand all types and power and should use them very effectively

Should be develop power skills also

In the summery of Power and Politics in Organisation chapter we can say power refers to the potential ability to influence others in a desired direction.

Group Behaviour – MBA Book

Monday, October 27, 2008

Introduction of Group Behaviour:

Group formation is created by more than one people for common interest. It is defined as two or more people interaction to achieve particular objectives.

According to Schien Group Behavior is, “Any number of people who interact with one another and are psychologically aware of one another and perceive themselves to be a group”. The theory was developed in 1972.

According to Adair theory which was proposed in 1986, “A group has common needs relating to task, group and individuals and each group develops its own “group personality”.

Objective of Group Behaviour Chapter:

Concept of Group

Types of Group

Group Formation

Characteristics of Group

Group Structures

These are topics of group behvaiour chapter which we have to study and elaborate this in our experience.

About the concept of group I have already mentioned it in introduction of group. So, from here I will start to write about “Types of Group”.

Groups can be divided into two parts – formal or informal. Formal group is well design and well define for an organization structure.

Formal groups run on command on group, task of group and with committee. Formal groups have some characteristics which should be followed by any formal group. These are:

It meets a required goal

It has defined structure

It is Problem solving group

It has some designation and work assignments for its member.

It has well defined norms.

It has specified goals and deadlines.

After the formal groups we can discuss on informal groups. In an organization both informal and formal groups work actively. But informal group don’t take responsibility like formal group.

Informal groups bring people together based on personal friendship and interest to the organization.

In informal group we can include – friendship group, interest group, reference groups, membership groups and cliques.

Stages of group development:

Everything has development process. So, group has also some process to develop its. According to Tuckman group development has five-stage. The theory was proposed in 1965.

The five stages of group developments are:

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Adjourning

Forming is initial formed group.

Storming is the stage of inter-group conflicts for group.

Norming is the stage of developing close relationship within group.

Performing is the stage of function within a group.

Adjourning is the stage of permanent for any group.

After this, we should discuss about characteristics of groups. In the group characteristics we can involve some aspects that are:

Role Structures: It defines the group member’s roles. It develops on individual skills. Personal roles can be explained as:

Role Overload

Role Conflict

Role Ambiguity

Now, there are group roles also which can be explained as:

Work roles

Informer roles

Maintenance roles

Group Roles can be defined in two ways – task roles and maintenance.

In the task roles we can include:

Initiator

Information seeker or giver

Opinion seeker or giver

Elaborator

Coordinator

Orienter

Evaluator

Energizer

Procedural Technician

Recorder

Like these in the maintenance roles we can includes these:

Encourager

Harmonizer

Compromiser

Gatekeeper

Standard Setter

Commentator

Follower

After all these discussion, now we can discuss about group structures. Group is not a mob at all. It is well organized formation of individuals to achieve goals.

For a group these structures can be followed:

Leadership: it is main roles of a group and leadership has major responsibilities.

Norms: it is vision to look the world.

Status: It is social aspect which is recognized by people.

Size: a group has different size but depends upon group goals. But normally it should be from 3-13 but for high quality it should be 3-5.

Composition: a group is a collaboration of many people and many targeted goals. So, in a group there should be composition of knowledge and skills.

Some Techniques for Group Decision Making:

Decision making is main task of a group. To take decision in group there are some techniques which is known as:

Brainstorming: it is known as generating alternatives.

Normal Group Technique (NGT): It is known as very good technique because in this technique a group meets formally but does not restrict independent thinking.

Delphi Technique: the technique has great value because it has ability to generate a number of independent judgments without the involvement of members face-to-face.

Lastly, we can say define group behaviour in short as group ethics. It is not individual propaganda but it is an inter-dependence propaganda however it satisfies individual needs and goals also.

Motivation - MBA Book

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Motivation known as internal condition which derives from desire and needs. About the motivation Stephen P Robbins says, “The willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditional by the effort ability to satisfy some individual needs.”

Another theory about motivation Fred Luthans said in 1986, “a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.”

Objective of Motivation:

In this chapter we have define some objective for motivation that are:

Process of Motivation

Theories of Motivation

Motivation Tools

Now, we will discuss about process of motivation. Motivation derives from needs and desire and it satisfy our goal and relief.

Needs: It is want or desire in normal words. Needs can be also defined as primary or secondary, depends upon situation.

In the theories of “Motivation” we 1st study about Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory which was proposed by Abraham Maslow. The theory known as “Hierarchy of need theory” also.

Abraham Maslow defines his theory into five levels which are:

Physiological Needs

Security/Safety Needs

Social Needs

Esteem Needs

Self-Actualization Needs

Maslow defines these needs in a arranged way that is why its name is Hierarchy of need theory. It has been arranged by importance of hierarchical manner.

In the Motivation Tools we include some motivating factors which can be:

Job Security

Sympathetic Help

Personal Loyalty to Employees

Interesting work

Good Working Conditions

Tactful Discipline

Good Wages

Promotion and Growth in a Firm

Feeling of being in on things

Full Appreciation of work done etc.

These can be motivation tools by which we can motivate a people, in a organization an employee, working environment and our surroundings also.

Types of Motivation:

Here we can discuss about types of motivation which we can use to motivate a people who is related to us. There are some motivation types:

Achievement Motivation

Affiliation Motivation

Competence Motivation

Power Motivation

Attitude Motivation etc.

These are type of motivation which let us know about motivation situation.

Motivation is a part of OB (Organisation Behaviour). Motivation change and modified OB also. In the Organisation Behavour change known as MBO (Management by Objectives).

As a Motivation tools MBO is a systematic and organized approach and it allows management to focus about achievable goals and resources.

Objectives of MBO:

In the Objective of MBO we can read by MBA book these:

Specific

Measurable

Attainable

Result-Oriented

And Time Limited

All these explore the MBO objectives and let us MBA students about motivation which is the part of MBO.

To change or modified employees behaviour we arrange team training and employee involvement which let us know about employees behaviour modification.

Another theory about “Motivation” comes from Hertzbeg. Hertzberg gives “two-factor theory”. The theory is known as motivation-hygiene theory also. It was developed by Hertzberg in 1959.

Hertzberg develop his theory as Hygiene Factors or Extrinsic factor and another is Motivator factors or Intrinsic factor.

In the Hygiene factors there are some examples which deal:

Supervision

Company Policy

Working Condition

Salary

Interpersonal Relationship

Security

In the Intrinsic factor these involves:

Achievement

Recognition

Work It

Responsibility

Growth and Advancement

Challenging Job

All these factors let to know us about the motivation factors which are based on two-factor theory.

After some time criticism of Hertzberg Two-Factor Theory came in light because in the theory there are some errors which was founded by R.J House and L.A Wigdor. The errors of two-factor theory were:

Two-Factor theory is based on limited methodology.

Hertzberg’s theory based on situation which is not scientific.

Two-Factor theory is only related to job satisfaction which can be not a theory in real sense.

It ignores situational variables.

Hertzerg think about satisfaction and productivity by himself but in his theory there are only satisfaction not productivity.

By the End of Hertzerg’s theory in future came another theory which was Alderfer-ERG theory of motivation.

Alderfer developed his theory in 1972 which was known as ERG theory. It was also in criticism of Maslow “Motivation” theory.

Alderfer theory mean as:

E = Existence

R = Relatedness

G = Growth

Theory of ERG is similar to Maslow’s theory. Both theories define hierarchy of needs. But here Alderfer theory differs from Maslow in two major ways that are:

Individual regress to lower level if need remain unsatisfied at lower levels.

If the need satisfy, May continuous to dominant.

We know needs and desire create motivation. So, there is need theory also which is proposed by McClelland.

McClelland theory of needs announced that needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experience.

Motivating Tools in a Firm:

Today, when there is a chance to growth career for employee, a firm should also give them a chance to explore their career.

There are some tools by which we can give some satisfaction to our employees:

Job Enlargement

Job Enrichment

Job Rotation

These are the best practice by which can satisfy our employee and can motivate them in right direction also.

Summary of “Motivation” Chapter

Motivation is the process of explore goal behaviour in right direction. Motivation creates need and desire also. All these experience you can get from SMU MBA books also which is written by many reference books. I am writing here also after reading this book but all these writing based on my own experience.


MBA Results of Sikkim Manipal University

Monday, September 29, 2008

MBA results has been already declared by SMU on 6th, September, 2008 for July examination. Now, you can maintain all the things on the web along with results like- mail, prospectus, exam dates, forms and applications etc.


I have already told that I am doing my MBA from future point in my previous post. So, to see the my results I visit my future point site http://futurepoint.co.in/. Here in left navigation iI got student login with Sikkim Manipal University hyper link. Here all the students can enter their Roll Number to login on the site and passwords are also same – Roll Number. After entering your roll number the site will redirect to SMU panel where your profile and results all the things will be displayed.


I think like this all the centers sites have student login option where students can login to view their results. My 1st semester results is not satisfactory and I got “C” Grade.

MBA Book – Perception

Sunday, September 21, 2008

Perception is the primary process of evaluation. It is way to understand our surroundings and ourselves. As an MBA in an organization perception study is necessary to understand employees activates. Perception can be process of interpreting information about another person or another organization. It is our sensory experience and by it we evaluate thought, behaviour, organization and a situation in initial stage of our thought.

Perception Objectives are:

Perception process

Factors influencing perception

Barriers to perception

Attribution: Internal and External perception

Kelley’s attribution theory

Attribution Biases

Perception process moves from selecting, starting and end on interpreting information.

Factors which influence perception are: perceiver, Object or being perceived and in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

Barriers to perception are like burdensome whatever others want to perceiving and interpreting.

“Attribution refers to how a person explains the cause of another’s or his or her own behaviour,” defined by SMU book.

Internal attributions: This is something within the individual’s control.

External Attributions: it means something is outside the individual’s control.

Kelly’s Attribution Theory: it shows that attribution is a perceptual process. Kelly has proposed attribution theory, “Individuals make attribution based on information gathered in the form f three informational cues – consensus, distinctiveness and consistency.”

Theoreticians proposed that attributions can be affected by two very common errors – fundamental attribution error and self-serving bias. In these two attribution errors can be cultural errors.

In the last we can say perception can be defined as personal primary sensory to evaluate a person, organization and situations.

MBA Book – Personality & Emotions


Personality has many definitions in general opinions or in a psychologist opinions but personality words origin is from Latin word “personare” which meaning is “to speak through”. In the MBA book personality is defined as “relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behaviour.”

In this chapter we understand about:

Term of Personality

Determinants of Personality

Various Theories of Personality

Defence Mechanism

Theories of Emotion

About the personality I have already explained that there are no limitations of its theory. Here is one of the theoreticians, Gluck writes about personality, “Personality is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influences his or her behaviour toward goal achievement. Each person has unique way of protecting these states.”


Determinants of personality: depends on biological, cultural, family, social and situational factors.

Biological factors are related to heredity, brain, biofeedback, physical features etc. Like that cultural factors, family factors, social factors and situational factors are the determinants of personality.

There are four theories of Personality:

Intrapsychic Theory: the theory was developed by Sigmund Freud and it emphasizes on unconscious determinate of behaviour. It runs among three elements of personality- id, ego and superego.

Type Theories of Personalities: The theory classifies the label or categories of people. The theory comes from people body types, thinking types, judgment types etc.

Trait Theories: The theories include five factors- Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Trait theories can be defined in short term as OCEAN.

For the Trait personality theories some theoretician has also defined its. In the series Gordon Allport’s Personality Traits are on top. According to the Gordon Allport’s personality theory, “Personality traits are real entities, physically located somewhere in the brain.”

He defines his theory mainly in two parts:

Common Traits: the theory share or hold in common with most others in our own culture.

Individual traits: According to Allport, Individual traits have three elements- cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits.

Reymond Cattell’s 16 Personality factors theory: Known as 16 P.F Test.

Unconditional Positive Regard Theory: It is developed by Rogers. He believes in therapist and thinks that unconditional positive regard gives the therapist.

Personality Characteristics in Organisation: As a manager if you going to hire in an organization, you would have to learn as much as possible about personality in order to understand their employees. Individual behaviour can be traced by these personality characteristics in an organization:

Locus of Control

Machiavellianism

Self-Esteem

Self-Monitoring

Positive/Negative Affect

Risk Taking

Type of Personality

In the book MBA which is provided by SMU defined emotion, “Emotion is defined as subjective feelings accompanied by physiological changes and usually associated with the change in perception, thinking and behaviour.

Many theoreticians have also defined emotions which are:

James Lange Theory of Emotion: James defines emotion theory that felt emotion occur of the bodily changes.

Cannon-Bard Emotion Theory: He says, “Felt emotion and bodily reaction are quite independent of each other.”

Emotion shows facial expressions as:

Anger

Fear

Sadness

Joy

Surprise

Disgust

Curiosity

Acceptance etc.

In the last we can say personality and emotion are guided by each other. And both are developed in a situational environment. Personality and emotion in an organization should be rational for the growth of organization as a manager.

MBA Book – Values, Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Saturday, September 20, 2008

In this chapter, objective of MBA students are:

Concept of Values

Types of Values

Analysis of Attitudes formation, Component of Attitudes and Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Attitudes in Organisation

Job Satisfaction

Ethics in Organisation

Values decide what is right and what is wrong and it is inspired by moral.

Formation of values are rely on family, organization, school, religious, institutes and self justification.

About types of values we can say there are – theoretical, economical, aesthetic, social, political, religious etc. values which depends on person’s environment.

Attitude is psychological aspects which remain a person inside. Attitudes are also like values and come from person’s environment. Attitude develops thorough experience also.

Components of Attitudes:

Cognitive Component: The theory reflects a person’s perception or beliefs.

Affective Component: The theory reflects person’s feelings that result from his or her beliefs about a person, object or situation.

Behavioural Component: The behaviour component of an attitude refers to behave in a certain way towards an object or person.

Formation of Attitudes is also like values formation and it comes from family, organization, school, institutes etc.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory: The theory was proposed by Leon Festinger, in 1957. According to the theory people change their attitudes and behaviour to re-establish consistency which motivates by unpleasant state of arousal.

According to the book attitudes and behaviour are depends on five things:

Attitude Specificity

Attitude Relevance

Timing of Measurement

Personality Factors

Social Constraints

To change attitude a person is a very hard task but through some massages attitude can be changed like politician.

In an organization commitment towards organization depends on attitudes. A manager can develop attitudes in employee’s loyalty towards organization to increase job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction and organizational commitment is depends on attitudes that can be satisfied by a manager to improve employee’s attitudes satisfaction.

Attitudes in an organization are most important things because it affects work behaviour directly or indirectly in organization. If an employee is satisfied then his commitment towards organization and attitudes towards organization will be in favour of organization.

Ethics in an organization is developed by managers. Ethics are standards of conducts or moral judgment which is used by managers in the favour of organization to handle business very effectively.

Ethics are defined in three ways: Immoral, Moral and Amoral. Unethical behaviour can affect individuals, work teams and the organization so managers should be ethical in terms of organization and employees.

In the last we can say values and attitudes both are tinged with moral and lead to job satisfaction with ethical management.

MBA Books – Foundation of Organisational Behaviour: Individual Behaviour

Tuesday, September 16, 2008

In this chapter, we will discuss about organizational behaviour as an individual. How to behave in an organization as an individual? In an organization when we work for productivity and growth as a manger, we care every individual employee and their goal derives to the company.

Objective of this chapter:

Biographical Character of Employee

Different types of abilities in an Employee

Concept of Learning

Theories of Learning

In the Basic Model of Individual Behaviour we learn about person environment, their attitudes, heredity, skills, needs, personality and knowledge then we able to know about individual behaviour in an organization and their consequences towards organizations productivity.

Biographical Character of an employee depends on age, gender, martial status and loyalty with an organization.

Abilities in an individual show his work capacity. Broadly, abilities are divided into two parts in the MBA book – intellectual abilities which occurs intelligence test, aptitude test, spatial aptitude etc.

Second are physical abilities which are related to individual stamina, dexterity, strength and characteristics.

In the concept of learning theory there are many definitions by theoretician like Stephen P Robbins, Munn N.L and Steers and porter. But in my sense learning change behaviour and give new things knowledge. Learning never related to only degree and university it is beyond from book also.

Now, for theories of learning there are about four learning theories in the MBA book chapter-

Classical Conditioning theory – The theory had been developed by Ivan Pavlov. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian physiology at the institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg. The theory was published in his book “Conditioned Reflexes”. Classical Conditioning theory is basically for modifying behaviour by conditioned stimulus.

Operant Conditioning Theory: The theory had been developed by B. F. Skinner in the critique of Pavlov Classical Conditioning theory. Operant Conditioning theory argues that behaviour is a function of its consequences.

Cognitive Learning Theory: the theory focus on mainly unobservable change in mental knowledge which is defined by the MBA books in the chapter. Further, it refers to individual’s ideas, thoughts, knowledge, interpretation and understanding of individual’s environment.

Social Learning Theory: Simply we can know about it that it is learning from social context.

Summery

The organizational behaviour and individual behaviour is the part of management. As an MBA we can justify individual goals and can adjust them towards the organization.

MBA Books – Management Process and Organization Behavior

Monday, September 15, 2008

The book has been provided by Sikkim Manipal University for MBA Students (Distance Education) in the 1st semester there are six books. The 1st book is “Management Process and Organization Behavior”. The book is for Master in Business Administration degree and the management book code is “MB 0022” for SMU distance education students.

There are 10 chapters in the book. I am writing about 1st chapter “Organisational Behaviour”.

The chapter defines about management as a creative problem moving process. Management has some managerial features which are – organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. Every manager should be these skills to handle management situation.

Organisational behavour objectives are:

Functions of a Manager

Skills of a Manager

Roles of Manager

Organisational behavour as a discipline

Challenges and Opportunities for Organisational Behaviour

Functions of a manager are dependent on management environment. According to theoretician there are many definitions also: Neuman and summer has divided into four parts as a management: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.

Henri Fayol, define as – planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling in five parts.

Luther Gulik gives a new theory of management - POSDCORB. POSDCORB define management as – planning, organizing, staffing, directing or leading, coordinating, reporting and budgeting.

These are the theoretician concept about management and manager roles as a MBA.

Skills of manager are also decided by management environment. In the MBA book there are there types of management level has been defined:

Conceptual Skills – The skills is for top lever management which evolve concept about management.

Human Skills- It is middle level of management for a manger to handle human being softly.

Technical Skills- It is Supervisory or we can say low level of management which deals technical aspect of companies.

About the managerial roles there are also three process to get inform, to make decisions etc. that are –

Personal- it provides information to figurehead, leader and liaison.

Informational- it gives process information to monitor, disseminator and spokesperson.

Decisional- it is for using information to entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource Allocator, and negotiator.

Now Organisation Behaviour:

Organisaation Behaviour is the systematic study of actions and attitudes within organizations. It learns how to behave as an individual in group and in organizations. It is the study of dynamic character which acts in various organizations.

Organisation Behaviour is a part of management study. Its challenges in today’s world are:

Study of dynamic workplace

Employee behaviour modification

Employee up gradations

At last I can say management can enhance business growth and it can be back of business.

Objectives of MBA (Distance Education)

MBA is broader aspect of management. We can say, it is mastery in business. Master in Business Administrator is a management of creative problem solving process. Nowadays, MBA course from distance education is for developing knowledge and skills in fundamental management disciplines and management activities.

Objective of MBA course are:

As a MBA the course is aim to develop essential management skills to face and participate in the creative solving problem among global business environment.

The course intended to industrialize, commercialize the cultural background of MBA students to make them professional manager in global companies.

MBA degree for a student can be a professional course to get promotions and manager rank in the big companies but it gives also a skill of management to manage business problem in the favour of companies.

Introductions of MBA from SMU University

Saturday, September 6, 2008

MBA Degree

I have already mentioned in my previous post that I am a student of MBA from SMU (Sikkim Manipal University). Now, I am in second semester. In my view MBA is for managerial skills to handle trade & commerce, services effectively. It is a master degree in Master of Business Administrations. It is aimed at developing knowledge and skills in fundamental management disciplines.

Objectives of MBA: It is aimed to develop essential management skills for participate in the global business environment.

Admission Process: After having complete graduations from any UGC recognized colleges or universities; you are able to appear for the MBA courses in SMU University.

Duration of the Course: There is six semester for Master of Business Administrations for 2 years however you can complete up to 4 years.

Medium of Course: Medium of course is English.

Credit System: There is credit system for MBA course. Credit system is relying on your study of 30 hours for each credit. Every student has to complete at least 68 credits to be awarded Master of Business Administration.

Session Schedule: There are two session from SMU university to appear for MBA courses – Spring Session and Fall Session.

Session - Starting Date - Closing Date

Spring Session - 1st week of February - Last week of July

Fall Session - 1st week of August - Last week of January

Assignments/Project: You have to must write assignments and submit that in your respective learning centers till decided time.

Examination Schedule: In a year two times examination will be held like admission. Spring session examination will be till July/August and for fall session it will be Jan/Feb subsequent year.

Type of Questions: Only objective question will be for the course. There are three types of multiple choice questions (MCQs).

Negative Marking: 25% negative marking will be applied for each wrong answer.

Examinations Hours: There are total 2 hours for 3 types of questions. Part A, Part B and Part C, these are three types of questions. In Part A there is 40 questions and every question has 1 minute to complete it. In Part B there is 20 questions and every question has 1.5 minutes to complete it. In the Part C there are 15 questions and every question has 3 minutes to complete it.

Note: Before starting to complete questions read carefully instructions of solving questions paper. You must have black ball pen and a pencil. By the pen you have to fill up round box properly any one for one question.

Case of Re-Sitting: A student can appear in the Re-sitting examination if he has clashing in a particular subject. He will be allowed the examination with the re-sitting admit card.

Passing Marks: 40% is minimum marks to pass out in your subject. 35% will be from internal assessment and 35% will be from university examination however total aggregate should be minimum 40%.

Grade Systems: Which student will get 70% above marks will get “A” grade with “Excellent” reward. 60-69% will be counted as “B” grade for “Very Good”. 50-59 is for “C” grade which indicate “Good” performance. 40-49% is for “D” grade which is for “Satisfactory” performance. “E” grade is for failure.

Note: Before appearing examination read carefully term & conditions of exam. For ex. – You are not allowed to carry phone.

You will be able to know more about SMU university’s MBA courses from here: www.dde.smuhmts.edu

Specialization in MBA from SMU University: Sikkim Manipal University offers some specialization in MBA which is here –

Finance
Marketing
Human Resource Management
Information Systems
Banking
Retail Operations

Note: 1st and second semester will be same for all Master of Business Administration students.

Specialisation will be decided after 2nd semester. Now, after this I will write about all MBA’s books which will be related to me.

MBA 1st Semester

Saturday, August 30, 2008

I joined in February, 2008 for my MBA 1st semester. It was SMU (Sikkim Manipal University) as I already mentioned in my previous post. I was charged 10,450 and 500 for prospectus. I got my book after 1 month and classes was also started after one month in Future Point which was my institute recognised by SMU.


I joined my only one class there that is about first semester MBA books and their study was poor. But I was studied myself. I am a hard worker man and done hard work for my study. After the office I was always busy in my study.


I will write about that books further but not deeply like as 2nd semester. I will write about them here my experience which I got during the study. I think MBA study will boost my career and me as well. Lets see what happen after having complete it.

About me and the MBA blog

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

The blog is started by me to write about MBA and MBA courses which I am doing from SMU University. I was appeared in its 1st semester examination was held in July. Now, I am waiting for its result. However, 2nd semester admission has been done in August and classes are started from 25th August in recognized organization.

I was a simple graduate from Patna University, Bihar. My honors subject was History. I was passed with 2nd division in my honors paper in 2004. After completing graduation I had no clear vision due to financial problem. I joined an organization there I worked as an advertiser and composer of book in July 2004. That time I had done computer course in DTP. By me there was a book is published that name was “Hero of twentieths century”. Its writer was Narendra Kumar. It was from “Iskra” Publication that name was defined by me when book was under consideration. I worked there till August, 2005. After that I came to Delhi and begin to try getting a job. That time I had no idea about my career and profile. Lastly I had joined an organization that name was V-Angelz technologies Pvt. Ltd. as a dispatch executive. Here I had joined in November, 2005. I worked as dispatch execute till July, 2007. In July 2007, I was transferred in Search Marketing department as a Link Exchange Executive.

When I was moved in Search Marketing team I was unaware about Search Engine and Search Engine Optimization. My seniors even team leader was not interested in me because I was simple graduate. No wants to make me learn something about SEO. But soon I started to learn myself and in very short period I learn major thing about this. I studied many books and expert SEO theory about it. I know online marketing, web 2.0., SEO, search engines, Social networking and bookmaking, blogging, RSS, optimization of on page and off page and web analytic etc. I studied some books related to analytic also that was written by Avinash Kausik. Now, I am running a SEO and Web 2.0 blog also and now I am capable to handle any type of SEO projects.

I was neglected that is why I joined in MBA course. I am unable to write more about 1st semester because I had not joined my classes but I will write about them in short. Now, about the 2nd semester I want write more because I have joined the classes. This is the blog regarding my MBA classes and courses and that books.

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