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Education Resources

Human Resource Management : HR Management

Saturday, December 13, 2008

After having completed the book review of MB 0022 of 1st semester I am going to write about the human resource management in an organization. Globally, Human Resource Management today known as a part of an organization and it has own existence world wide.

It is said that management of human resources lead, mobilize and direct the efforts of people. In the stage of globalization and industrialization human resource management reveal the following trends according to Dale Yoder:

1. Increased complexity of organization and employment communication and a distinction between owners, managers and workers

2. Decreased number of employers and self-employed, and enlarged size or workforce

3. Enhanced need for training in view of increased requirements of specialized skills

4. Public interventions and legal complication in employer-employee relationships

5. Enhanced training and development of managers and professionalisation of management education

6. Possibility of employment explosion in view of the ever-increasing size of workforce

7. Rising formal level of education of rank-and-file employees who are becoming increasingly critical of management malpractices and errors

8. Rank-and-file employees’ rapidly growing demands in different employment situations

9. Increased applications of behavioural science by enterprising managers

10. Recognition of close relationship between profits and earnings and ability to manage human resources

These are the identified problem which occurs in an organization with the employee and owners. The need creates the role of human resource management.

Objectives of Human Resource Management by the MB 0027 Book:

Importance of Human Resources

Economic and Non-Economic factors and their interaction with HR

Evaluation of HR and HR management in the Indian context

Theory of Human Relations

Objective of HR

Growth of HR as a profession

Personnel Management and HR Management

At first we will discuss on the importance of Human Resources however it has been discussed some more above. From the MBA book MB 0027 we can defined that Human Resources is known as the “total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the population whereas from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees” Main importance of human resource management are increasing significance in modern organizations.

In the chapter economic and non-economic factors we can say at 1st human resource known as the importance from the economic standpoint at national, enterprise and individual levels of analysis.

Evolution of Management of Human Resources in Indian Context:

In the “Artha-Shastra” which is written by Kautliya, an Indian 1st economist in 4th century B.C provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources. In the book he described labour in a society as the system of “Shreni”. According to the “Shreni” Indian society was divided in four parts from the labourer point of view. Kautilya has provided an excellent thought on staffing and personnel management also which define the ability of a man to work in society. According to the personnel skills everyone will get the job in society. Further, Indian society divided on the cast system to distribute labour system.

In the modern age of India there was a factory act in 1881. According to the act workers were allowed a week off-day and for woman workers hours of a day have been limited as eleven hours per day. Further the act lead to the child workers also and give them royalties to work seven hours in a day and a child should be in minimum age of 7 years and only day shift they can work.

To lead the voice of workers first labour organization designated in Bombay in 1890 as Mill Hands association. In 1905 the Printers’ Union at Calcutta comes in light and similarly in 1907 the Postal Union at Bombay was established.

In this process after the post independent of India the fight between employee and owners were continuous. All the aspect to organize resources and human being for an organization give birth the management of human resources in India also.

Theory of Human Relations

The theory of human relations has been defined in two factors – employee human relationship within an orgnastion and public human relations outside an organization. About the theory Huneryager and Heckmann said, “Human relations is a systematic, developing body of knowledge devoted to explanning the behaviour of individuals I the working organsion”. According to McFarland, “Human Relations is the study and practice of utilizing human resources through knowledge and through an understanding of the activities, attitudes, sentiments and inter-relationship of people at work.”

According to the MBA Book of SMU – MB 0027 Human Relations in Management “is a process that brings workers into contact with and causes them to be influenced by their leaders, their jobs and other aspects of the organizations which they work.”

Human Relations Objectives:

Mainly human relations work within the employee and for the employee in the favour of an organization and owners. It is not a technical and economic aspects but it is the aspect which deals the motives of an organization.

Specially, in India human relation movement took place in 1970s when Indian workers and agrarian announced to fight against the capitalist classes. It was the turning point for the human relation department in India.

In the end of the chapter we can take look of Yader, Henemen and others who differentiate the Personal Management and Human Resource Management by the definition, “HRM is a broad concept which covers many personnel aspects and include social, professional and individual enterprise aspects, whereas Personnel Management focuses only on personnel aspects such as leadership, justice determination, task specialization, staffing, performance appraisal, etc. HRM is more growth-oriented whereas Personnel Management is slightly narrow.”

Organisational Change and Development – MBA Book

Monday, December 1, 2008

MBA is all about related to a firm or company so we have to discuss all things in the relation of on organization.

An intellectual has said that everything is changeable. So, it is also fact in the situation of organization. Development of organization is changing process.

We should decide some objectives of this chapter which can be:

Forces for change

Form of change

Approach to change

Concept and purpose of development

Types of Organisation Development Activity

Analysis of Organisational effectiveness

Change refers to a modification always. We know change without force is not possible. For example we can see whole history of life. So, we can indicate the forces of change in an organization:

Nature of the Work Force

Technology

Economic Shocks

Competition

Social Trends

World Politics

Change should be recognized as external and internal changes. External forces which is beyond us and include – Technological changes, globlisation, social and political changes, workforce diversity and managing ethical behaviour etc.

Like these internal forces includes - changes in Managerial personnel, declining effectiveness, changes in work climate, deficiencies in the Existing System, Crisis and Employee expectations.

Internal forces, which can be managed by us and which is not beyond us.

Now, we will discuss about forms of change. There are two types of changes – planned and unplanned.

Now, here is another thing which is definition of Organisation Development (OD)

For the topic we should take look on some theoretician definition. According to Wendell L. French and Cecil H. Bell, Jr., “Organisation development is a systematic process for applying behavioural science principles and practices in organizations, to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.”

Another theory comes from Worly, “a systematic application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processing for improving an organisation’s effectiveness.”

Now, we can say that organization development is organization improvement strategy. OD is known as a technique which brings change in the organisatioin.

Now, we can say change is inevitable in a progressive culture and society to meet the new.

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