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Verb – Uses of Verb in Tenses from Business Communication of MBA

Friday, December 11, 2009

Verb is the name of action in English grammar. Verb is divided into two parts – Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb.

Transitive verb: the action passes from the subject to an object.

For example – My cat killed a rat.

In the sentence, the action of “killing” passes from the “cat” to the “rat”. In the sentence “killed” will be known as the transitive verb.

Intransitive verb: the action does not have any succeeding object. It merely points to a condition.

For example – The girl is dancing.

The action of “dancing” does not have any object that comes after it. Here “dancing” is an intransitive verb.

Uses of Verb in Tenses:

Tense refers to the time of action. The form of main verb changes with the change of tense. Tense has twelve structures.

Simple Present:

It is known for habitual action and permanent truths or facts.

Rules - Subject + V1

For example – The sun rises in the east.

Present Continuous:

The tense indicates the present time when an action is going on.

Rules – Subject + {is, am are} + V1+ ing

For example – My son is drawing scenery.

Present Perfect:

The tense indicates an action that has happened at an indefinite time in the past.

Rules – Subject + {have, has} + V3

For example – My father has just left.

Present Perfect Continuous:

The tense indicates an action that began in the past and still occurring in the present.

Rules – Subject + {have, has} + been + V1 + ing

For example – He has been working in Washington for 5 years.

Simple Past:

The tense is used for a completed action that had happened in the past. It indicates habits of the past also.

Rules – Subject + V2

For example – We always played together.

Past Continuous:

The tense indicates an action which was occurring in the past and was interrupted by another action.

Rules – Subject + {was, were} + V1 + ing

For example – I was watching cricket.

Past Perfect:

The tense is used to indicate an action that happened before another action in the past. Usually two actions are mentioned in the sentence.

Rules – Subject + Had + V3

For example – Ram had gone to the store.

Past Perfect Continuous:

The tense is used to convey an action which happened in the past and continued for certain time.

Rules – Subject + had + been + V1 + ing

For example – Ramu had been working at the university before he retired.

Simple Future:

The tense is used to express the speaker’s opinions or assumptions about the future.

Rules – Subject + {will, shall} + V1

For example – They will wait for us.

Future Continuous:

The tense is used to express an action as going on at some time in the future.

Rules – Subject + {will, shall} + be + V1 + ing

For example – I will be helping Marie tomorrow.

Future Perfect:

The tense is used for an action which at a given future time will be in the past. It is usually used with a time expression “by then”, “by that time”.

Rules – Subject + {will, shall} + have + V3

For example – By the end of next month he will have been here for ten years.

Future Perfect Continuous:

The tense can be used instead of future perfect tense.

Rules – Subject + {will, shall} + have + been + V1 + ing

For example – By the end of the week he will have been training pupils for ten years.

Verb and tense are interrelated elements in English grammar. It is the basic chapter of learning English. We already have discussed about Noun and Pronoun in the communication process chapter. Now, the Verb and uses of verb in tenses will surly improve your grammar skills. It will help in the examination of Business Communication of SMU MBA also.

Pronoun – Types of Pronoun and Uses of Pronoun from Business Communication of SMU MBA

Monday, November 16, 2009

After the discussion of Noun, I need to share some thought about Pronoun. The chapter is the most important in English grammar. Types of Pronoun are related to the uses of pronoun. The chapter deals the book of Business Communication of SMU MBA.

Pronoun:

Pronoun is known as another face of Noun. Pronoun is used as a proxy to the proper noun to avoid repetition of the Nouns. The word “Pronoun” means “For a Noun”. Thus, Pronoun is a word that is used instead of noun.

Types of Pronoun:

Personal Pronoun

Relative Pronoun

Distributive Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun

Indefinite Pronoun

Reflexive Pronoun

Emphatic Pronoun

Interrogative Pronoun

Reciprocal Pronoun

The personal Pronoun replacing the noun should conform to the gender, number and person of the noun.

Relative Pronoun must always be placed as near its antecedent as possible.

Distributive Pronoun is singular in number and must be followed by singular verb.

Demonstrative Pronoun is also used to avoid the repetition of a preceding noun.

Indefinite Pronoun refers to noun in a general way.

Reflexive Pronoun is used when subject and object refer to the same person.

Emphatic Pronoun is used to emphasize the subject of the sentence.

Reciprocal Pronoun expresses a mutual or reciprocal relationship.

Interrogative Pronoun is used for questions.

Uses of Pronoun:

When two singular nouns joined by “and” are preceded by “each” or “every”; the pronoun must be singular in number.

For example: Every student and every teacher took his seat.

When two singular nouns are joined by “and” denoting the same person/thing, the pronoun used for them must be singular in number. The definite article “the” is placed before the first noun.

For example: The accounts officer and treasurer should be careful in his work.

When nouns of different genders are combined by a conjunction, the pronoun must agree with the gender of the noun which is next to the conjunction.

For example: Every boy and girl went to her house.

Pronoun is always considered as the biggest chapter in English grammar. To develop communication skills, pronoun is the essential chapter.

About Noun and Uses of Noun by Remedial English from Business Communication

Sunday, October 11, 2009

Remedial English is the chapter of Business Communication of SMU MBA. SMU introduces the book as MB0023 for MBA student. I want to discuss about the Remedial English chapter from the Business Communication book. This is the very big chapter of Business Communication which is about parts of speech. During the English language learning, grammar is known as the foundation. In the English Grammar, parts of speech is the base on which we make a sentence. There are eight parts of parts of speech in English grammar such as – Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Adjective, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection.

Here, I want talk about Noun and uses of Noun. Noun is the basic and most important chapter of English grammar. It is the first chapter of parts of speech. It is the communication process from where we begin.

Definition of Noun:

There are many definitions about Noun but we take only few for references. According the David Green, “A Noun may be defined as the name of a person, place or thing. By ‘thing’, we mean something that can be seen and touched (concrete) or something that can only be thought of and not seen and touched (abstract).” This definition is very suitable that says everything about Noun in short.

For example – Lisa, Shyam, Rohan etc. for names; Park, Patna, Delhi etc. for places; Pen, Pencil, Book etc for thing.

Functions of Noun:

Noun can function as subject, object and compliment in a sentence. For example – Ram Reads a Book. (Ram is Noun). A Book is read by Ram. (A Book is Noun). Ram’s book is very informative. (Ram’s Book is Noun).

Kinds of Noun:

There are very differences about kinds of noun between modern grammar and old grammar. According to the old grammar, noun is divided into five parts such as – Proper Noun, Common Noun, Abstract Noun, Collective Noun and Material Noun. New grammar treats these in two parts such as – Countable Noun and Uncountable Noun.

According to the Business Communication book, noun can be shown as:

Kinds of Noun

Gender in Noun:

Father, Boy, Hero; male denoted noun is known as the Masculine Gender.

Mother, Girl, Heroine; female denoted noun is known as the Feminine Gender.

Baby, Parent, Student, Teacher; common denoted noun is known as the Common Gender.

Tree, Jewel, Building; neuter denoted noun is known as the Neuter Gender.

Number of Noun:

Single thing is known as the Singular Noun such as – tomato, boy, card etc.

More than one is known as the Plural Noun such as – tomatoes, boys, cards etc.

So, this chapter gives knowledge about Noun and uses of Noun in English grammar which is the first and basic chapter of parts of speech. This is the most important chapter in the process of learning English grammar. It is the most preferable chapter of business communication to develop communication skills and to know about types of communication also.

Types of Communication and Impact of Communication

Friday, September 11, 2009

We already have discussed about communication process and communication barriers in our previous post. Here, I want to tell about types of communication and impact of communication on human behaviour.

Communication is possible with words. We talk to our friend to write a letter or E-mail. It means we are talking through words. We are establishing a communication with our friends. This is one type of communication but here we will discuss on many types of communication.

Communication through words:

When a baby cries, the mother turns to her. Communication through spoken words or written words is called verbal communication. Verbal communication is known as spoken communication also.

Non-verbal communication:

Non-verbal communication is known as communication without words. In this process we don’t use words to send or receive massages. We can categories non-verbal communication as:

Gestures

Body Language

Posture

Facial Expression

Eye Gazing

Impact of Communication on human behaviour or performance:

Effective communication is known as the well-defined strategy that enables any organization to achieve its set goals. A close tie between business, performance, technology and communication strategies provides a strong base for understanding and support within an organization.

The performance of an individual is either enhanced or hampered depending upon the effectiveness of communication in the work place. An organization is more than a set of by-laws, financial reports or organizational charts. It is a group of ‘people’. We cannot deny the social aspects of the workplace because it inhibits the transfer of information and knowledge and hinders the organization’s ability to outperform and innovate.

Just turn around- you may be in the cafeteria, front office, recreation area or the administrative block. Pay attention to different communication that I going on. Are they clear? Are they too harsh or too dry? How are they perceived? Is the receiver of the message accepting or rejecting the message? Do people care to what you say? Do you accomplish your goal? It is more than often that you are in a dilemma about issuing new instructions.

Effective communication enables you to hold a “relaxed” meeting and read to them what you wrote so that they could critique.

Communication Process and Communication Barriers in an Organization

Monday, August 17, 2009

Mostly, “Communication” term is used by behavioural theorists, management scholars and the general public. We will follow here some definition of communication which has been varyingly defined over the years.

I am going to share some definition of communication process from one of the MBA books - MB0023.

According to the Newman and Summer, communication is used as,
“an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”
Here Newman and Summer theorizes communication as an exchange of views.

Hoben defines it as,
“Communication is the verbal interchange of thought or idea.”
He is not dealing with written and visual communication.

We get a good definition about communication by Anderson who says,
“Communication is the process, by which we understand others and in turn endeavor to be understood by them. It is dynamic, constantly changing and shifting in response to the total situation.”
So, the definition is in the process and continuances.

Function and Purpose of Communication

In an organization communication helps to establish and disseminate the goals. It facilitates the development of plans for the achievement of goals. Communication helps to manage and utilizes manpower and other resources in the most effective and efficient manner. Communication helps manager lead, direct and motivate employees to contribute right things.

Process of Communication

Normally, communication is known as interpersonal, wherein the information or message is transferred from one person to the others. Transmitting person of the message is called the sender or transmitter. Receiver of message is called the receiver. The process of converting information that has to be sent, into a format which the receiver can understand is known as encoding.

Information can be encoded into various formats – oral, written or visual. To show each of the formats we had to go through a medium called channel. There are many channels of communication which may be a letter, memorandum, computer, telephone, fax, telegram or a television.

Information which is transferred to the receiver has to be interpreted. Interpretation is known as decoding. The process of replying is known as feedback. Here is a diagram of communication process:

Communication Process Diagram

So, to send any message a sender chooses a suitable channel and finally receiver sends a message back to the sender.

Barriers to Effective Communication

In each process of communication – encoding, transference and decoding, there may be possibility of interface. It may hamper the communication process. This is known as noise. It is just like carrying water in leaky bucket. Barriers are also major difficulties during message transferred. To ensure clarity in communication, barriers must be eliminated or minimized.

Barriers of communication can be defined as

Linguistic and cultural differences: It creates the problem for receiver to complete or understand the language used by the transmitter.

Environment: Noise is the basic barriers in the types of environment barriers of communication.

Channel: A faulty fax machine, a crackling phone or illegible hand-writing can be barriers of channel communication.

Receiver’s Attitude and Behaviour: The type comes basically in organization to satisfy clients. It can lead the inaccurate hearing of the information.

Transmission Journey: There can be some difficulties during transmission journey. So, it is necessary to repeat the massage and use more than one channel to communicate a message.

Lack of Planning: Purpose to communicate a person should be very clear. So, planning is the most effective thing to void lack of planning in communication.

Semantic Distortion: The distortion comes in the uses of words. It may be a serious barrier to effective communication.

At last, we can sum up communication definition, function, process and barriers. To handle a person or an organization it is the most necessary thing to understand communication, communication process and communication barriers. There should be a planned way of communication to understand or send a message.

Leader and Leadership in an Organization

Thursday, July 9, 2009

There are great debate on leader and leadership. Some of the people say that leaders are born not made but some are against it. It is said that Alexander/Julius Caesar were leader from born.

On the chapter we have to discuss about leader and leadership in an organization. A manager should be leader or not? A manager has better quality of leaders or leaders have better quality of managers?

Leadership objectives:

Meaning of leadership

Qualities of a good leader

Theories of leadership

Different types of leaders

Functions of a leader

Differences between ‘managers’ and ‘leaders’

According to the Haiman Leadership is, “the process by which an executive or a manager imaginatively directs, guides and influences the work of others in choosing and attaining specified goals by mediation between the individual and organization in such a manner that both will obtain the maximum satisfaction.” In other word we can say leadership is, “the relationship in which one person influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain that level which he desires.”

Some quality of a good leader:

Has foresight

Has influence

Has representative role playing

Communicates properly

Commands attention and respect

Helps to achieve task objectives

Commands trust and confidence

Is sensitive to the task, people and environment

Builds team and becomes a model

Has the ability and skill to manage the team

Has the ability to take decision and many more

In the leadership theories “Great Man” theories comes first and according to it great leaders are born, not made.

According to trait theories people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership.

According to Contingency theories leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation.

According to situational theories leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable.

According to the behavioural theories leaders are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born.

According to the participative theories ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account.

Management theories focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance.

Relationship theories focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers.

About the classification of leadership we know these types:

Bureaucrat Leaders

Autocrat Leaders

Diplomat Leaders

Expert Leaders

Quarter Back Leaders

But according to the Chris Argyris leadership classification leaders types are:

Directive type

Permissive type

Participative type

Abraham Zaleznik (1977), delineated differences between leadership and management. He saw leaders as inspiring visionaries, concerned about substance; while managers are viewed as planners who have concerns with process. Warren Bennis (1989) further explained a dichotomy between managers and leaders. He drew twelve distinctions between the two groups:

Managers administer, leaders innovate.

Managers ask how and when, leaders as what and why.

Mangers focus on systems, leaders focus on people.

Managers do things right, leaders do the right things.

Managers maintain, leaders develop.

Mangers rely on control, leaders inspire trust.

Managers have a short-term perspective, leaders have a long-term perspective.

Managers accept the status-quo; leaders challenge the status-quo.

Managers have an eye on the bottom line, leader have an eye on the horizon.

Managers imitate, leaders originate.

Managers emulate the classic good soldier, leaders are their own person.

Managers copy, leaders show originality.

In the end of the chapter we can say leaders are far ahead from a manager. Manager vision should be like a leader. Above mentioned all the resources will clear you about the function of a manager and leaders. In this term we can say leaders purpose are for high term however manager purposes are for short-term.

Groups and Group Dynamics

Monday, June 8, 2009

The group concept is as old as civilization. In the primitive age group was a basic unit of survival. On this group chapter we have to focuses on group dynamics and principles of group dynamics.

Groups and Group Dynamics Objectives:

Meaning of group

Characteristics and functions of groups

Different types of groups

Group characteristics

Group dynamics and principles of group dynamics

About group Kimball Young defines, “two or more persons in a state of social interaction.” Sherif and Sherif define about group as, “a social unit which consists of a number of individuals who stand in definite status and role relationships to one another and which possesses a set of values or norms of its own regulating the behaviour of individual members, at least in matters of consequence to the group.”

Normally group characters define in four parts 1) two or more people, 2) who interact with one another, 3) share some common ideology, and 4) see themselves as a group.

On the formal group MBA book MB 0027 writes, “The formal work group has a designated leader who supervises group members, mediates rewards and punishments, and is responsible for group performance to a higher authority in the organization.”

On the informal work groups, “Informal groups are loosely organized groups such as bowling teams and social clubs that arise apart from the formal organization to which members of the informal group may belong.”

Thomas Harrll has defined group dynamics as, “an expression that describes the situation in which people acting together in a group accomplish certain thing, either positively or negatively in a way that cannot be explained adequately in terms of the individual acting separately.”

Cartwright has termed principles of group dynamics which are:

If a group is to be used effectively as a medium of change, those who are to be changed and those who are to wield an influence for change must have a strong sense of belonging to the same group, i.e., the barriers between the leaders and the led should be broken down.

The more attractive a group is to its members, the greater the influence it would exercise on its members.

The higher the prestige of a group member in the eyes of the members, the greater the influence he will exercise on them.

Information relating to the need for change, plans for change, and the consequence of change must be shared by all the members of a group.

In the end of the chapter we can say that group dynamics is concerned with the interactions and forces between group members in a social situation.

Grievance and Grievance Procedure

Friday, May 1, 2009

Grievances always vary from company to company and it has many definitions also by many authors. Grievance is used company to indicate various forms and stages of an employee’s dissatisfaction.

According to the Dale Yoder, “a written complaint filled by an employee and claiming unfair treatment.” Another definition comes with Prof. Jucious who defines as, “any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not and whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company that an employee thinks, believes or even feels unfair, unjust or inequitable.”

There are various factors which arise Grievances. A grievance is always a symbol of some malfunctioning or maladjustment and an able and skillful manager can always find out the real or submerged reasons for a grievance.

The dispute or grievance constitutes a managerial problem and the scientific method is usually most productive in arriving at a satisfactory solution.

On the Grievance handling procedure from MBA books, MB 0027 writes:

A grievance should be dealt within the limits of the first line supervisor.

The appellate authority should be made clear to the employee so that is he cannot get satisfaction from his immediate supervisor, he should know the next step.

The grievance should be dealt with speedily.

In establishing a grievance procedure, if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest or order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register his protest.

Grievance Handling Procedure
Grievance Handling Procedure Image

In the grievance handling the some factors include:

Receive and define the nature of the dissatisfaction.

Get the facts.

Analyze and divide.

Apply the answer.

Follow up.

In establishing a grievance procedure, if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest of order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register the protest.

In the language of the labour management relations, a grievance is a complaint formally presented by the employee or employees to the management.

In case, the grievance has not been settled by top management and top union leadership, the same may be submitted to an impartial arbitrator.

Discipline and Disciplinary Procedure of Management

Saturday, April 11, 2009

On the basis of discipline a system or an organization may run very smoothly. Discipline in an organization is a paramount importance for its smooth running and survival.

Discipline comes with the capitalist system to run factories and arrange the resources and labour power. It is basically known for an organization however in the Jamindari system it was also most famous for discipline.

Discipline and Disciplinary Procedure Objectives:

Meaning of discipline and disciplinary procedure

Objectives of discipline

Principles for maintenance of discipline

Basic ingredients and guidelines for disciplinary action

Procedure for disciplinary action

Process of dismissal and discharge of the employee

Conditions for discharge of the employee

According to the Bremblett, Earl R, “discipline in the broad sense means orderliness-the opposite of confusion.” But according to the Calhoon Richard D., “discipline may be considered as a force that prompts individuals or groups to observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary for the effective functioning of an organization.”

On the objectives of Discipline one of the MBA books MB 0027 writes:

To obtain a willing acceptance of the rules, regulations and procedures of an organization, so that organizational goals may be attained.

To impact an element of certainty despite several differences in informal behaviour patterns and other related changes in an organization.

To develop among the employees a spirit of tolerance and a desire to make adjustments.

To give and seek direction, and responsibility.

To create an atmosphere of respect for the human personality and human relations.

To increase the working efficiency and morale of the employees, so that their productivity is stopped up, the cost of production brought down and the quality of production improved.

According to Article 311 of the Indian constitution, which says that, “no person shall be dismissed or removed from service until he has been given a reasonable opportunity to show cause as to why the proposed action should not be taken against him.”

In the end of the chapter we can say that the ultimate purpose of a disciplinary action is to maintain discipline, to ensure productivity, and avoid a repetition of the offense.

In the other words a disciplinary action should be evaluated in terms of its effectiveness after it has been taken.

Morale and Motivation Theory of Management

Friday, March 6, 2009

Morale is internal feeling and it is inspired by the environment. Motivation comes from enthusiasm, zeal, confidence in individuals or groups that they will be able to cope with the tasks assigned to them.

Morale and Motivation Objectives:

Meaning and importance of morale

Relationship between morale and productivity

Methods of measurement of employee morale

Distinguish between morale and motivation

Steps in motivation

Ways of motivating the employees

Major theories of motivation

From one of the MBA Books MB 0027 a theory comes in my mind which has been proposed by Professor Ralph C. Davis about morale, “Good organizational morale is a condition in which individuals and groups voluntarily make a reasonable subordination of their personnel objectives of their organization.”

Another theory of morale comes from B Flippo morale is, “a mental condition or attitude of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate. Good morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformance with regulations and orders, and a willingness to co-operate with others in the accomplishment of an organization’s objectives. Poor morale is evinced by surliness, insubordination, a feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job, company and associates.”

On the importance of morale we can say that it is the realization of common objectives which refers to the working of an individual. Morale is also depends on the reality and material background. So, it depends upon the relations between expectations and reality.

There are some scales on which we can measure employee’s Morale:

The supervisor/executive’s impressions

The guided interview

The unguided interview

A combination of the guided and unguided interview

An analysis of company records

The listening-in process

The questionnaire

A combination of any of the foregoing methods

Morale can be improved in a specific organization and in a specific environment:

Creation of whole jobs

Job enrichment

Building Responsibility into a job

Modifying the work environment

Flexing Working hours

Job-sharing

Rotation of Jobs

Profit-Sharing

These are the perception on which we can develop a strong feeling for the morale in a person to do that.

Motivation is also an internal feeling like morale but it is not consistence like morale. About the motivation Michael Jucius has defined, “motivation is an act of stimulating someone to get a desired course of action.”

In the theories of motivation Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory comes at first. According to Maslow’s hierarchy theory it is known as an individual’s motivations as a predetermined order of needs which he strives to satisfy. His model of hierarchy of needs indicates satisfaction of human basic needs.

Another theory comes with McGregor’s which is known as theory of X and theory of Y (and theory of Z).

In the end of the chapter we can say the best results come when an organization has both high morale and high motivation.

Compensation Management – Salary Negotiation

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Compensation management chapter contain wage and salary aspect. The word salary applies to compensation that is uniform from one period to the next and does not depend upon the number of hours worked.

Compensation Management Objectives:

Wage, Compensation and their administration

Job Satisfaction

Labour and Wage Theories

Classification of Wages

Machinery for fixing wages

Job Evaluation

Objectives of job evaluation and methods of evaluation

Promotions and transfers

Wage and Salary Administration:

The term compensation management is the alternative of wage and salary administration. Wage word is commonly used for those employees whose pay is calculated according to the number of hours worked. The concept of wage came from capitalist before it in the Jamindari system the concept of wage was in the slaves form. Salary applies to compensation that is uniform from one period to the next and does not depend upon the number of hours worked. When we got for job definition we found that job is defined as a collection or aggregation of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that, as a whole, is regarded as the reasonable assignment to an individual employee. Job is known as impersonal however position is known as personal. Job always contains a position which defines some set of works.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction depends on the situations and environment of work atmosphere. According to the MBA Book MB 0027, “Job satisfaction is determined by a set of personal and job factors, personal factors relate to worker’s age, length of service, intelligence, skill, and other personality or temperamental factors.

About the Job Evaluation British Institute of Management has defined “job evaluation as the process of analysis and assessment of jobs to ascertain reliably their relative worth, using the assessment as a basis for a balanced wage structure.”

“Job analysis is the process of getting information about jobs; specifically, what the worker does; how he gets it done; why he does it; skill, education and training required; relationships to other jobs; physical demands and environmental conditions”.

On the job evolution methods we can include some aspects:

Ranking methods

Grade Description Method

Point Method

Factor-Comparison Method

Time-Span Method

Guide-Chart Profile Method

Pigors & Meyers give a unique definition of promotion which is, “the advancement of an employee to a better job – better in terms of greater respect of pay and salary. Better houses of work or better location or better working conditions-also may characterize the better location or better working conditions-also may characterize the better job to which an employee seeks promotions, but if the job does not involve greater skill or responsibilities and higher pay, it should not be considered a promotions.”

On the Subject of Transfer Pigors and Mayers also writes, “the movement of an employee from one job to another on the same occupational level and at about the same level of wages or salary.”

In the end of the chapter we can say that Compensation Management deals not only salary and wages but also job analysis and job satisfaction.

Performance Appraisal : Evolution of Employee Performance

Friday, February 6, 2009

Performance is a type of evolution about employee which tells the organization about the employee skills and their work efficiency. Performance appraisal is evaluating the employee’s work and gives the chance to their career growth and satisfaction.

Performance Appraisal Objectives:

Meaning of performance evaluation and recognition

Various techniques and methods of evaluation

Significance of rewards and incentives

Purpose of promotions

Concept of 360 degree Appraisal

Performance appraisal has been arranged by HRM time to time on the yearly or half yearly basis to review the performance of an employee towards the organization. About the performance appraisal MBA book MB 0027 writes, “Performance evaluation is the personnel activity by means of which the enterprise determines the extent to which the employee is performance the job effectively.”

Techniques of Evaluation

Evaluation techniques depend on a particular organization because every organization has their own evolution techniques.

But normally evaluation methods have been divided into three parts:

Individual evolution methods

Multiple-person evaluation methods

Other methods

In the individual evolution methods there can be some aspects to evaluate which can be:

Graphic rating scale – normally it contain (0-9) scale to rate a person scores.

Forced choice – Forced choice can be by superiors, peers, subordinates, or a combination of these in evaluating employees.

Easy Evolution – In the evolution system some questions has been asked by evaluator strong and weak aspects of the employee’s behaviour.

Management by Objectives – It is known as MBO and in the system the supervisor and employee to be evaluated jointly set objectives in advance for the employee to try to achieve during a specified period.

Critical Incident technique – In this technique, personnel specialists and operating managers prepare lists of statements of very effective and very ineffective behaviour for an employee.

Checklists and weighted checklists – In the process you have to check out some question on the understanding of your answers.

Behaviorally anchored rating scales – It is known as BARS.

In the multiple-person evaluation methods there are also some techniques occurs:

Ranking – in the method the evaluator is asked to rate employees from highest to lowest on same overall criterion.

Paired comparison – this approach makes the ranking method easier and more reliable.

Forced distribution – It is similar to grading on a curve.

In the other methods we can include performance tests, fixed review techniques etc.

Appraisal, Praise or Recognition

About the praise, “Praise seems to have its greatest value when given and received as recognition, and is not perceived by either party as an attempt to control the behaviour of the recipient.”

Recognition satisfies human need for esteem by others and for self-esteem.

About the Rewards and Incentives Burack and Smith says, “An incentive scheme is a plan or programme to motivate individual or group performance. An incentive programme is most frequently built on monetary rewards (incentive Ray or a monetary bonus), but may also include a variety of non-monetary rewards or prizes.”

Incentives and rewards always attract the employee attraction towards the work and give them satisfaction to the organization.

Promotions

According to the MBA book MB 0027 promotion is, “a term which covers a change and calls for greater responsibilities, and usually involves higher pay and better terms and conditions of service and, therefore, a higher status of rank.”

360 Degree Appraisal

These terms (360-degree, full circle, etc.) mean using the variety of sources that provide the best picture of performance. Therefore, for example, an agency may use supervisor, self and customer input to supplement the rating official’s appraisal in one division’s program. Another division of the same agency with “self-directed teams” may use peer, self and subordinate ratings to obtain the most useful input.

Employee Growth & Development Training

Friday, January 23, 2009

The era is of skilled workers because outsourcing has developed the work efficiency and has moved to quality works. So, every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced professional to perform the activities that have to be done. To solve the problem of complex job there is need of well trained employee selection policy.

Objectives of Employee Growth & Development Training Chapter:

Objectives of training

Importance of training

Types and techniques of training and development

Types, Methods and Procedures of training

Reasons of Failure of training

About the meaning of training MBA book MB 0027 writes, “Training indicates any process by which the aptitudes, skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased. Training refers to the teaching/learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by that organization” It is well known that a company give the training to its employee to the fulfill organization objectives not for employee satisfaction however the job descriptions satisfy employee satisfaction also.

According to Douglas McGregor there are three different purposes of learning:

Acquiring Intellectual Knowledge

Acquiring Manual Skills

Acquiring Problem-Solving Skills

These three training purpose develop the skills, intellect and problem solving ideas to the employee.

Now, we can say that importance of training main purpose is sound management, for it makes employees more effective and productive. Importance of training widely known as, “training is widely accepted problem-solving device. Indeed, our national superiority in manpower productivity can be attributed in no small measure to the success of our educational and industrial training programmes.”

According to the A.D. Sinha identifying training needs:

Views of the line manager

Performance appraisal

Company and departmental plans

Views of training manager

Analysis of job difficulties

Now, we can look into need and importance of management development by Dr. B. K. Madan, “Mangement development is the development of management over and above its science and theory, of its practice and application in organization, corporations and institutions, alike in relation to the organization and manager, so as continuously to re-equip both to fulfill their purposes more effectively and in harmony with each other, and both with the environment in which they function and have their being and hope to thrive upon and grow.”

About the training evaluation MBA book MB 0027 writes, “Objectives of training evaluation is to determine the ability of the participant in the training programme to perform jobs for which they were trained, the specific nature of training deficiencies, whether the trainees required any additional on the job training, and the extent of training not needed for the participants to meet job requirements. There are various approaches to training evolution. To get a valid measure of training effectiveness, the personnel manager should accurately assess trainee’s job performance two to four months after completion of training.”

On the training failure we can writes:

The benefits of training are not clear to the top management.

The top management hardly rewards supervisors for carrying out effective training.

The top management rarely plans and budgets systematically for training.

It means all the aspect depends on the higher management who doesn’t know the reality and don’t want the reality of training management programme. It is the cause of training failures.

In the end of the chapter we can say that employee growth depends on the training and training for the organization development as well as well employee satisfaction.

Human Resource Planning & Selection Policy

Thursday, January 8, 2009

We already have discussed in previous chapter about the human resources evolution, importance and objectives. Now, we will elaborate here bout the planning and selection policy of human resource.

The objectives of Human Resource Planning & Selection Policies are:

Need for HR Planning

Process of HR Planning

HR Planning System and its Components

Responsibilities for HR Planning

Recruitment practices in the Indian Context

Recruitment Programme

According to Wikcstrom, “Human-resource planning consists of a series of activities.” Human resource planning is nothing but manpower planning.

Human Resource Planning System

About the Human Resource Planning Tata Electrical Locomotive company writes, “embraces organization development, management development, career planning and succession planning.”

The human resource planning contains:

Deciding goals or objectives

Estimating future organizational structure and manpower requirements

Auditing Human resources

Planning job requirements and job descriptions

Developing a human resource

In the responsibility of human resource planning Geisler writes:

1. To assist, counsel and pressurizes the operating management to plan and establish objectives

2. To collect and summaries data in total organizational terms and to ensure consistency with long-range objectives and other elements of the total business-plan

3. To monitor and measure performance against the plan and keep the top management informed about it

4. To provide the research necessary for effective manpower and organization planning.

Induction

From the MBA book 0027 about the recruitment policy Dale Yoder writes, “Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.”

In the sources of recruitment these are following aspects:

Advertising: the Company adverse about the job vacancy from the various sources –off-line and on-line.

Employment Agencies: In the recent era job consultants have acquired the job areas to give the job for employee.

Employee Referrals: It is the programme which is run by the company. It is internal communication within a company to get some referral when a employee refer to another for the organization.

In the India recruitment practices have been classified:

1. within the organization
2. Badii or temporary workers
3. Employment agencies
4. Casual Callers
5. Applicants Introduced by friends
6. Advertisement
7. Labour contracts

These are the major sources from where Indian company hair employee for an organization.

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